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آموزش زبان انگلیسی پانــدا - جملات شرطی ترکیبی

جملات شرطی ترکیبی

    جملات شرطی ترکیبی

    این امکان وجود دارد که در جملات شرطی دو جزء جمله به زمان های مختلف دلالت کنند و نتیجه آن جملات شرطی ترکیبی خواهد بود. دو نوع جمله شرطی ترکیبی وجود دارد که در ادامه توضیح داده می شوند:


    1. نتایج کنونی برای شرایط غیرواقعی در زمان گذشته 


    ساختار :
    If/when ... past perfect ..., ... would + verb ... .
    ... would verb ... if/when ... past perfect ... .

    مثال :
    If I had worked harder at school, I would have a better job now. 
    I would have a better job if had worked harder at school.


    در این نوع از جملات شرطی شرایط غیر واقعی در گذشته بوده اند و نتایج آن در زمان حال بررسی می شود، به بیان دیگر اگر در گذشته شرایط بگونه ای دیگر بود الآن نتیاج فرق می کرد، ولی شرایط آن چنان نبوده و الآن نیز نتایج این چنین نیست. در این جملات فعل در جزء شرطی به زمان گذشته کامل و در جزء اصلی بصورت ساده با استفاده از فعل Would استفاده می شوند. 


    If I had studied I would have my driving license. (but I didn't study and now I don't have my license)
    I would be a millionaire now if I had taken that job. (but I didn't take the job and I'm not a millionaire)

    If you had spent all your money, you wouldn't buy this jacket. (but you didn't spend all your money and now you can buy this jacket)


    If I had worked harder at school, I would have a better job now.
    I would have a better job now if I had worked harder at school.
    If we had looked at the map we wouldn't be lost.
    We wouldn't be lost if we had looked at the map.
    If you had caught that plane you would be dead now.
    You would be dead now if you had caught that plane.


    در جزء اصلی جملات شرطی نوع سوم، بجای Would می توان از افعال کمکی برای بیان میزان قطعیت، اجازه دادن و پیشنهاد کردن نیز استفاده کرد. 

    If you had crashed the car, you might be in trouble.
    I could be a millionaire now if I had invested in ABC Plumbing.
    If I had learned to ski, I might be on the slopes right now.

     



    2. نتایج گذشته از شرایط حال حاضر و همیشگی


    ساختار :
    If/when ... past simple ..., ... would + have + past participle... .
    ... would + have + past participle... if/when ... past simple... .

    مثال :
    If I wasn't afraid of spiders, I would have picked it up. 
    I would have picked it up if I wasn't afraid of spiders.

    این نوع از جملات شرطی به شرایط غیر واقعی حال حاضر و نتایج احتمالی گذشته اشاره می کند. در این نوع جملات فعل در جزء شرطی به حالا یا همیشه دلالت می کند و فعل در جزء اصلی به گذشته اشاره دارد. برای مثال "اگر از عنکبوت نمی ترسیدم با دست می گرفتمش" یک جمله شرطی از این نوع است. این جزء که اگر از عنکبوت نمی ترسیدم مربوط به زمان حال است یعنی من از عنکبوت می ترسم و این جزء که با دست می گرفتمش نیز مربوط به زمان گذشته است یعنی اینکه نگرفتمش. 

    If she wasn't afraid of flying she wouldn't have traveled by boat.
    I'd have been able to translate the letter if my Italian was better.
    If I was a good cook, I'd have invited them to lunch.
    If the elephant wasn't in love with the mouse, she'd have trodden on him by now.

    If I wasn't afraid of spiders, I would have picked it up.
    I would have picked it up if I wasn't afraid of spiders.
    If we didn't trust him we would have sacked him months ago.
    We would have sacked him months ago if we didn't trust him.
    If I wasn't in the middle of another meeting, I would have been happy to help you.
    I would have been happy to help you if I wasn't in the middle of another meeting.

     

     

      چهارشنبه 2 دی 1394         ساعت 10:32 قبل از ظهر            نظرات